Nd:YAG Laser

In this article, we’ll explore the fundamentals of Nd:YAG laser technology, its various applications, and the benefits it offers. Whether you’re a medical professional, researcher, or simply interested in laser technology, this article will provide you with valuable insights into this fascinating field.

Nd:YAG Laser Definition

  • Nd:YAG laser full form: neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser.
  • It is a type of solid-state laser that uses a crystal made of yttrium, aluminum, and neodymium as its active medium.
  • The laser is optically pumped by a flashlamp or diode laser, which causes the neodymium ions in the crystal to emit laser light at a wavelength of 1064 nanometers.
  • Nd:YAG lasers are used in various fields, including medical and cosmetic procedures, industrial cutting and welding, and scientific research.

Active Medium

  • This is a four-level solid-state laser system. Yttrium Aluminium garnet (Y3Al5O12), commonly known as YAG, doped with neodymium ions Nd3+ is the active medium. The active medium is taken in the form of a crystal and s drawn into a rod. The neodymium ions Nd3+ are the active centers.

Resonator Cavity

  • The end faces of the Nd:YAG rod is ground polished and silvered to act as the optical resonator mirrors., or the optical cavity can be formed by using two external reflecting mirrors M1 and M2.

Optical Pumping

  • A xenon flash lamp or a krypton flash lamp is used as a pumping source.

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Nd:YAG Laser Construction And Working


  • The schematic diagram of a Nd:YAG Laser is shown in the figure below.
Nd:YAG Laser
  • A Nd:YAG rod and a krypton flash lamp are enclosed inside an ellipsoidal reflector. In order to make the entire flash radiation, focus on the laser rod, the Nd:YAG rod is placed at one focal axis and the flash lamp at the other focal axis of the ellipsoidal reflector.


  • The flash lamp is switched on. The optical pumping excited the Nd3+ ions from the ground energy state E0 to the higher energy level E3 and E4 by absorbing radiations of wavelength 0.80 μm and 0.73 μm, respectively.

Nd:YAG Laser Diagram

  • The energy-level diagram of Nd:YAG Laser is shown in the figure below.
Nd:YAG Laser energy Diagram
  • The excited Nd3+ ions then make a transition from these energy levels. The transition from the energy level E4 to E2 is a non-radiative transition. The state E2 is the metastable state. Upon continuous excitation, population inversion on Nd3+ ions is achieved at the metastable state E2.
  • Any of the spontaneously emitted photons will make the excited Nd3+ ions undergo a transition between the E2 → E1 states. Thus, during this transition, the stimulated photon is generated.
  • The photons traveling parallel to the resonator axis experience multiple reflections in the mirrors. As a result, the transition E2 → E1 yields an intense and coherent laser beam of wavelength 1.064 μm. These laser beams continuously. the Nd3+ ions then make a transition between E1 → E0, which is a non-radiative transition.
  • Only a part of the energy emitted by the flash lamp is used to excite the Nd3+ ions, while the rest heats up the crystal. Thus, the system can be cooled by either air or water circulation.

Advantages of Nd:YAG Laser

Sr. NoAdvantages of Nd:YAG LaserDescription
1.VersatilityCan be used in a wide range of applications, including medical and cosmetic procedures, industrial cutting and welding, and scientific research.
2.Deep PenetrationCan penetrate deeper into the skin or material than other types of lasers, making it ideal for tattoo removal, hair removal, and deep tissue surgery.
3.Minimal Damage to Surrounding TissueHas a high level of precision and can target specific areas without damaging the surrounding tissue, making it a safe and effective treatment option.
4.Minimal DowntimeMany procedures that use Nd:YAG lasers have little to no downtime, allowing patients to resume their daily activities immediately after treatment.
5.Long Pulse DurationHas a longer pulse duration than other types of lasers, which can reduce the risk of side effects such as scarring, hyperpigmentation, and hypopigmentation.
6.High Peak PowerHas a high peak power, which means it can deliver a large amount of energy in a short amount of time, making it ideal for quick and efficient procedures.

Applications of Nd:YAG Laser

  • Nd:YAG laser has a wide range of applications across various industries, including:
  1. Medical: Nd:YAG laser is used in various medical procedures, including tattoo removal, hair removal, skin rejuvenation, and treating vascular lesions such as spider veins and birthmarks. It is also used in ophthalmology for treating glaucoma and other eye disorders.
  2. Industrial: Nd:YAG laser is used for cutting and welding metals, plastics, ceramics, and other materials. It is also used in manufacturing, aerospace, and defense industries for precision drilling and marking.
  3. Scientific research: Nd:YAG laser is used in scientific research for spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and laser ablation.
  4. Military: Nd:YAG laser is used in military applications for range finding, target designation, and missile guidance.
  5. Dental: Nd:YAG laser is used in dentistry for soft tissue surgeries such as gum contouring and treating periodontal disease.
  6. Aesthetic: Nd:YAG laser is used for non-surgical cosmetic treatments such as skin resurfacing, acne treatment, and cellulite reduction.

Overall, Nd:YAG laser is a versatile tool with a wide range of applications in various fields. Its precision, deep penetration, and minimal damage to surrounding tissue make it a safe and effective option for many procedures.

Nd:YAG Laser for hair removal

  • The Nd:YAG laser is a useful hair removal tool. It functions by using a laser beam to damage the hair follicles and prevent further hair growth by focusing on the pigment in the hair follicles. Nd:YAG lasers, which have a longer wavelength and can penetrate deeper into the skin than other types of lasers, can target hair follicles that are situated deeper within the skin. For those with darker skin tones or thicker hair who might be more vulnerable to side effects from other types of hair removal methods, the Nd:YAG laser is a good alternative.
  • For best results, Nd:YAG laser hair removal usually necessitates a series of treatments spaced several weeks apart. The amount of treatments required will vary depending on the area being treated, the thickness and density of the hair, and other factors. Following the procedure, patients might experience some redness or swelling in the treated area, but this usually goes away within a few hours.
  • Overall, the Nd:YAG laser offers a painless, long-lasting method of hair removal with little chance of side effects. Before receiving any laser hair removal treatment, it is crucial to speak with a licensed medical professional.

FAQs on Nd:YAG Laser

What is a Nd:YAG laser used for?

Nd:YAG laser is used for a variety of applications in fields such as medicine, industrial manufacturing, scientific research, military, and aesthetics. Some common uses include tattoo removal, hair removal, skin rejuvenation, laser surgery, and laser welding.

What is YAG full form?

YAG is short for yttrium-aluminum-garnet, which is the crystal that is used to create the laser beam in a Nd:YAG laser.

Which is better IPL or Nd:YAG laser?

The choice between IPL and Nd:YAG laser depends on the specific application and the patient’s individual needs. Generally, Nd:YAG laser is better for darker skin types and thicker hair, while IPL is better for lighter skin types and finer hair.

Where is Nd:YAG laser most commonly used?

Nd:YAG laser is most commonly used in medical and aesthetic procedures such as tattoo removal, hair removal, skin rejuvenation, and vascular lesion treatment. It is also used in industrial manufacturing and scientific research.

What is the cost of Nd:YAG laser in India?

The cost of Nd:YAG laser treatments in India can vary depending on the specific treatment and the location of the clinic. Generally, the cost of laser hair removal treatments can range from INR 2,000 to INR 10,000 per session.

What is the advantage of Nd:YAG laser?

The advantages of YAG laser include its ability to penetrate deep into tissues, minimal damage to surrounding tissue, and versatility for use in a wide range of applications such as medical, industrial, and scientific research.

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Hello friends, my name is Trupal Bhavsar, I am the Writer and Founder of this blog. I am Electronics Engineer(2014 pass out), Currently working as Junior Telecom Officer(B.S.N.L.) also I do Project Development, PCB designing and Teaching of Electronics Subjects.

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