In this section, we are going to learn about the Applications of Radar in a very detailed manner with each application that can be used in everyday life as well as in some other areas.
Applications of Radar
Radar has been employed to detect targets on the ground in the sea, in the air in space, and even below ground. The major area of applications of radar are briefly described below:
1. Military Applications:
- In the military radar has wide applications. Radar is used by the military, especially for surveillance purposes of enemy aircraft. The surveillance radar detects, locates, and identified enemy targets. It is also being used for providing navigation aids to military or as well as civil aircraft. It is also used for tracing targets and controlling weapons.
2. Targeting Radars:
- Targeting Radar uses the same principle but scans a much smaller area far more often, usually several times a second or more, where s search radar might scan a few times per minute. Some targeting radars have a range gate that can track a target, to eliminate clutter and electronics counter measurement.
3. Navigational Radars:
- Navigational Radars resemble search radar but use very short waves that reflect from earth and stone. They are common on commercial ships and long-distance commercial aircraft.
4. Weather Radars:
- Weather Radars can resemble search radars. These radars use radio waves with horizontal, dual (horizontal and vertical), or circular polarization.
- The frequency selection of weather radar is a performance compromise between precipitation reflectivity and attenuation due to atmospheric water vapor. Some weather radar uses doppler to measure wind speeds.
5. General-Purpose Radars:
- General purpose radars are increasingly being submitted for pure navigational radars. These generally use navigational radar frequencies but modulate the pulse so the receiver can determine the type of surface of the reflector.
- The best general-purpose radars distinguish the rain of heavy storms as well as land and vehicles. Some can superimpose sonar and map data from GPS position.
6. Radar Proximity Fuses:
- Radar Proximity Fuses are attached to anti-aircraft artillery shells or other explosive devices, and detonate the device when it approaches a large object.
- They use a small rapidly pulsing omnidirectional radar, usually with a powerful battery that has a long storage life, and a very short operational life.
- The fuses used in anti-aircraft artillery have to be mechanically designed to accept fifty thousand gravities of acceleration, yet still be cheap enough to throw away.
7. Radar Altimeters:
- Radar altimeters measure an aircraft’s true height above ground.
8. Air Traffic Control:
- Air Traffic Control uses Primary and Secondary Radars.
- Primary Radar is a classical radar that reflects all kinds of echoes, including aircraft and clouds.
- The secondary radar emits pulses and listens for the special answer of digital data emitted by an Aircraft Transponder as an answer. The transponder emits a different kind of data like a 4-octal ID (mode A), the onboard calculated altitude (mode c), or the Callsign (not the flight number) (mode S). Military use transponders to establish the nationality and intention of an aircraft, so that air defenses can identify possibly hostile radar returns.
9. Law Enforcement and Highway safety:
- The radar speed meter, familiar to many is used by police for enforcing the speed limits.
10. Earth Observation and Remote Sensing:
- Radar systems are used in earth observation and remote sensing to gather data on the Earth’s surface and atmosphere. This information is used for applications such as monitoring land use and vegetation, measuring soil moisture, and monitoring the Earth’s climate.
11. Spacecraft Navigation and Communication:
- Radars are used in spacecraft navigation and communication to determine the position and velocity of spacecraft and to communicate with ground stations.
12. Mining and Geophysical Exploration:
- Radars are used in the mining and geophysical exploration industries to locate minerals and other subsurface resources. This information is used to determine the potential for resource extraction and to guide drilling and excavation operations.
13. Geological Surveys:
- Radars are used in geological surveys to gather information on the subsurface structure of the Earth’s crust. This information is used to study geology and seismology, and to locate natural resources such as oil, gas, and minerals.
14. Asset Tracking and Management:
- Radars are used in asset tracking and management to monitor the location and movements of vehicles, containers, and other assets. This information is used to improve logistics and supply chain management and to reduce losses due to theft or mismanagement.