What is Radiation?
Radiation is a process of emission or propagation of energy in space or through in the form of electromagnetic waves and acoustic waves. Radioactive material emits in the form of alpha and beta particles and gamma rays. Hence, Radiation is n the form of waves and particles, and gamma rays. Electromagnetic waves, Rada waves, Infrared waves, Visible light, Ultra Violet rays, Gamma rays, and Cosmic rays
What are Sources of Radiation?
There are two types of sources that can generate the radiation:
- Natural Sources
- Man-Made Sources
1. Natural Sources:
In natural Sources following radiation is happening:
- Solar Radiation
- Cosmic Rays
- Emission of Active Isotope
2. Man-Made Sources:
In Man-Made Sources following radiation is happening:
- Radio Waves
- Radar Waves
- Atomic Reactions
- High Voltage Sources of Power
What are the Effects of Radiation?
1. Physical Effects:
- Penetration: Electromagnetic waves are powerful enough to penetrate through objects, the shorter the wavelength higher the penetration power.
- Ionization: This is due to changing of particles in the medium when exposed to radiation. Ionization is more when the atmosphere contains more humidity.
- Emission of Light: Certain Photosensitive materials emit light when exposed to radiation. This property is used in practical applications.
- Thermal: When subjected to radiation, it produces heat.
- Resonance: Resonance is induced in mass when subjected to radiation.
2. Biological Effects:
(a) Acute Exposure:
It is when subjected to radiation of higher level of power densities of the order of hundreds of milliwatts/Cm2. It causes d man bodily effects which adversely affect human body, which is as follows:
- The rise in body temperature: Consequently High fever
- Anoxia: Lack of oxygen, resulting in damage to red blood cells also digestive system gets distorted due to damage to the liver.
- Opaque: Cataract of Eye
- Sterility: Impotence
- Damage to Central Nervous System
- Genetic Defect: Plant animals have been found to produce different varieties due to mutation.
(b) Chronic Exposure:
It is when exposed to smaller doses for a longer duration and the effects are as follows:
- Loss of memory, anxiety, and irritation.
Safety Precautions of Radiation?
As a safety precaution, areas of high power density should be faced off, locked, or otherwise made inaccessible when transmitting.
Personnel should never look into an open waveguide or antenna feed connected to energized transmitters.
When it is a must work in areas where the power density is at a dangerous level, the personnel should be protected with screened enclosures or with protective clothes made from reflective material.
Another potential safety hazard in working with high power s the generation of X-rays when high voltages are used to operate RF power tubes.
Tubes must be properly shielded with lead, and X-rays safety badges worn by operating personnel warm of excessive dosages.
Methods of Checking Radiation Level
Thermometer-type pens are kept near the transmitting source. While taking a reading on doozy meter, high voltage switching on and off time is to be taken. Every month SPMI ( Special Periodic maintenance Instruction) card checks and calculates the level of radiation.
(b) Film Badge:
The personnel working in the radiation area will wear badges. This badge s to be sent for medical inspection for carrying out a Bio-Chemical check and assessing the level of radiation.